Addressing Video Degradation in ISR Workflows
OVERCOMING THE LIMITATIONS OF CURRENT VIDEO TRANSPORT METHODS IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY
This white paper is intended for video transport and system engineers as well as project and program managers and will examine the state of video quality within ISR architectures, the challenges presented by current video transport methods and what can be done to ensure that quality meets operational requirements.
RAPID EVOLUTION OF VIDEO TECHNOLOGY FOR INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE (ISR)
ISR activities are central to ongoing military operations, providing early warning of enemy threats and enabling military forces to increase their effectiveness. Over the past 15 years, information derived from video sensors has played an increasingly critical role in military operations.
Video technology has evolved rapidly during this time, with the number of video sensors on a platform increasing from 1 to up to as many as 5, the switch from analog to digital format, and the transition from SD to HD resolution. The amount of contextual data transmitted with video has increased threefold and there have been significant advances made with video codecs and compression efficiency, from MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC to H.265/HEVC.
USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP) is a high-performance data transfer protocol designed specifically for the high-volume transfer of large datasets over high-speed wide area networks (WAN). UDP is a connectionless protocol which has no handshake, session, or reliability, and is a simpler and faster cousin to TCP.
Standards-Based Motion Imagery Workflow
As the availability of critical intelligence to those who needed it became increasingly important, the Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) was established in 2000 to formulate, review, and recommend standards for motion imagery, associated metadata, audio, and other related systems for the Department of Defense (DoD), and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA).
By standardizing the data used for exploitation, MISB’s aim was to ensure upstream and downstream interoperability of motion imagery systems with sensor outputs and exploitation systems and eliminate the proliferation of proprietary “stovepipe” solutions. This standardization would significantly increase mission efficiency through sharing of assets and common utilization of information generated from motion imagery systems.
When video began making its way into ISR workflows, MPEG2 was the de facto compression standard. In 2006, the MPEG Transport Stream (TS) over UDP was adopted as the standard container format and network transport protocol for Full Motion Video (FMV) via MISB EG 0601.